Blended Learning

Although the definition of blended learning is still ambiguous (Hrastinski, 2019), the pedagogical concept of blended learning can be described as the deliberate combination of distance, online and classroom-based instruction that activates and supports learning (Boelens, Van Laer, De Wever, & Elen, 2015; Castro, 2019). The various forms of study at all levels, which are not under the continuous and immediate supervision of face-to-face tutors with their students in classrooms, or in the same premises, but which nevertheless benefit from the planning, guidance and teaching of a tutorial organisation” (Holmberg 1977: 9-10). A type of instructional method in which teaching behaviour takes place apart from the learner, so that communication between teacher and learner can take place by means of printed text, electronic, mechanical or other techniques” (Moore 1972: 212).
Blended learning pillars: 30-79 % not f2f (Allen et al. 2007 ; Müller and Mildenberger 2021); “Substantial proportion of the content is delivered online, typically uses online discussions, and typically has some face-to-face meetings” (Allen et al. 2007, p. 10). ; Offers flexibility and individualization (Müller and Mildenberger, 2021) ; Tecnically supported by virtual campus, mobile internet, BYOD, learning management systems, online instruction, computer laboratories, electronic portfolios and e-mail (Dziuban et al. (2018). It connects with DigiCom UE policy. Teaching and education at the center. Teachers’ self-reflective competence as teachers (daringtoexperiment and fail) and connecting technologies to learning processes: the creative professional. This adaptive attributes relates to the attitude of “realizing a pedagogical need”. Realizing a pedagogical need for change agrees with the findings (Bruggeman, 2021). Blended learning provides teachers with opportunities to experiment with new teaching strategies and tools that engage students more (Vaughan, 2010).

Castro, R. 2019. Blended learning in higher education: trends and capabilities. Education and Information Technologies, 24, 2523-2546. > it is a literature review

“Since its emergence, the blended concept has had different names: hybrid, blended, blended and mixed learning (Bartolomé, 2004; Llorente, 2009; Moran, 2012; Picciano, 2014). And also different visions or meanings (Tayebinik and Puteh, 2012):
a) blended-learning (b-learning from now on) as a combination of face-to-face and online learning;
b) b-learning as a combination of delivery systems or training delivery technologies;
c) b-learning as a combination of learning strategies or models.
The first trend has been consolidated and is widely accepted, but the terminology remains blurred and the terms hybrid, blended and blended are used interchangeably.” (Salinas et al. 2018: 196)
SOURCE: J. Salinas; B. de Benito; A. Pérez; M. Gisbert Cervera (2018). Más allá de la clase presencial. RIED. Revista Iberoamericana de Educación a Distancia, 21(1), pp. 195-213. DOI:

“The term “b-learning” according to Bartolomé (2004, p. 11) has followed “the trend coming from the field of school psychology in which the term “learning” stands out as opposed to the term “teaching” S source : Bartolomé, A. (2004). Blended Learning. Conceptos básicos. Pixel-Bit, Revista de Medios y Educación, 23, 7-20

B-learning brings to teaching flexibility in educational times and spaces, access to a multiplicity of resources in addition to those offered by the teacher, new modes of interaction between student-teacher and between students, increased student autonomy and responsibility in their own process (Adell and Area, 2009) as elements of educational improvement, as well as facilitating the development of digital competence. Source: Adell, J., y Area M. (2009). eLearning: Enseñar y aprender en espacios virtuales. En J. De Pablos (Coord.), Tecnología Educativa. La formación del profesorado en la era de Internet. Aljibe, Málaga, 391-424.

B-learning configure a new overlapping model in which there are no substantial pedagogical differences between the face-to-face and distance models, an educational continuum, without clear differentiation between face-to-face and virtual teaching processes (Grahan, 2006) Source: Graham, C. R. (2006). Blended Learning Systems. Definition, current trends and Future Directions. En J. Curtis, Ch. Bonk y R. Graham (Ed.), The Handbook of Blended Learning: Global Perspectives, Local Designs. John Wiley & Sons.