Distance learning

Distance learning is a technological system of two-way communication, which can be massive and which replaces personal interaction in the classroom between teacher and student as the preferred means of teaching, with the systematic and joint action of diverse didactic resources and the support of organisation and tutoring, which favour independent and flexible learning by students” (García Aretio 1994, 50). “And in this technological integration in educational processes, no one can doubt that Distance Learning (DE) has gone ahead and has broken, in many cases in an abrupt -disruptive- way, spaces, times, methods, resources, roles, etc., of classical educational systems, which for this 21st century are already static, numb, too rigid for the needs and possibilities that today’s society is posing. Generating these new spaces, scenarios designed for learning, has been and continues to be the commitment of the distance learning” (G. Areito and Corbella 2015).

UNESCO (2002): the term open and distance learning reflects both the fact that all or most of the
teaching is conducted by someone removed in time and space from the learner, and that the mission aims to include greater dimensions of openness and flexibility, whether in terms of access, curriculum or other elements of structure. Open and distance learning has the potential to generate new patterns of teaching and learning. Strongly linked with developments in information and communication technologies, it is close to the development of new learning needs and new patterns of information access and application and learning.
Schlosser and Simonson (2009) defined distance education as “institution-based, formal education where the learning group is separated, and where interactive telecommunications systems are used to connect learners, resources, and instructor” (p. 4). They defined four components to distance education: distance education is institutionally based, uses the concept of ¿physical? separation of the teacher and student, uses interactive telecommunication which means “communicating at a distance using electronic and non-electronic means” and connects learners, resources and instructors. Martin et al., (2022) identify the fifth generation of distance education as online learning.

Martin, F., Sun, T., Westine, C.D., Ritzhaupt, A.D. (2022). Examining research on the impact of distance and online learning: a second-order meta-analysis study. Educational Research Reveiw, 36, 100438 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.edurev.2022.100438
Schlosser, L.A., Simonson, M. (2009). Distance education: definition and glosarry of terms. Faculty Books and Book Chapter, 25, NOva Southeastern University, NSU Florida.
UNESCO (2002) Open and distance learning. Trends, policy and strategy considerations. Division of Hihger Education, UNESCO