Global change

Source 1: Friis-Christensen, E. (2018). Global Change, Space Weather, and Climate. In T. Beer, J. Li, & K. Alverson (Eds.), Global Change and Future Earth: The Geoscience Perspective (Special Publications of the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics, pp. 28-39). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. doi:10.1017/9781316761489.005
“Global change refers to planetary-scale changes in the Earth system. The system consists of the land, oceans, atmosphere, polar regions, life, the planet’s natural cycles and deep Earth processes. All these constituent parts influence one another”, S. 28.

Source 2: Steffen, W., Sanderson, R. A., Tyson, P. D., Jäger, J., Matson, P. A., Moore III, B., … & Wasson, R. J. (2006). Global change and the earth system: a planet under pressure. Springer Science & Business Media:
“Global change is more than climate change” (S. 4), authors list changes (S. 5)  “the world’s population, currently 6 100 million, has doubled since 1960, tripled since 1930 and is projected o rise to over 9 000 million by 2050  since 1950 the global economy has increased by more than a factor of 15 economic inequality is increasing. The richest nations have 15% of the global population but generate 50% of world GDP world petroleum consumption has increased. The number of motor vehicles has increased from 40 million in the late 1940s to 676.2 million in 1996; G lobal communication has exploded with the development of the internet. Urbanisation increased 10-fold in the twentieth century. From 1950 to 2000 the percentage of the world’s population living in urban areas increased from 30% to 47%. The number of megacities (10 million or more inhabitants) increased from five in 1975 to 19 in 2000.

Source 3: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine 2021. Global Change Research Needs and Opportunities for 2022-2031. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press., S. 23
“The framing of global change has shifted from focusing on changes in land, oceans, atmosphere, polar regions, the planet’s natural cycles, and deep Earth processes to understanding the risks created by interactions among the hazards created by these changes, the exposed regions and populations and their associated vulnerabilities, and the governance capacities to prepare for and manage changes in human and natural systems. ”


Source 4: International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (IGBP):
Global change refers to planetary-scale changes in the Earth system. More completely, the term “global change” encompasses: planetary scale changes to atmospheric circulation, ocean circulation, climate, the carbon cycle, the nitrogen cycle, the water cycle and other cycles, sea-ice changes, sea-level changes, food webs, biological diversity, pollution, health, fish stocks, and more.

Civilization is now a large driver of global change so the term includes population, the economy, resource use, energy, development, transport, communication, land use and land cover, urbanization, globalization.